In sports, a coach or manager is an individual involved in the direction and instruction of the on-field operations of an team or of individual player. Coaching entails the application of sport tactics and strategies during the game or contest itself, and usually entails substitution of players and other such actions as needed. Most coaches are former participants in the sports in which they are involved, and those who are not have usually had extensive training in the sport in question.
A coach, particularly in a major operation, is traditionally aided in his efforts by one or more assistants known as the coaching staff. The coach's leadership is often cited, rightly or wrongly, as one of the prime or even the prime ingredient in successful efforts by the players under his or her direction. Many times, in major team sports the principal coach (usually referred to as the head coach) has little to do with the development of details such as techniques of play or placement of players on the playing surface, leaving this to assistants while concentrating on larger issues.
The title "Coach" is also one of respect or affection, often replacing the first name much like "Doctor" to become "Coach Smith". Former players will still address their instructor as "Coach", even if both the player and coach him/herself have long retired or graduated on.
2 Coaching methods
In some professional sports operations the head coach also serves as general manager, the team executive responsible for acquiring the rights to players and negotiating their contracts, generally in recent years with their agents, and for trading or dismissing players, but these roles have been increasingly likely to be seen as separate functions fulfilled by separate persons in more recent years, although many coach/general managers still exist.
Many coaches, usually those of school-sponsored sports teams, also bear the responsibility of teaching the skills, rules and tactics involved in a particuliar sport to its players. This can be accomplished individually, by team, by division (ex. Bowling Coach, Batting Coach, etc.) where applicable. Under this system in which duties are divided, there is necessarily a head coach who oversees all other coaches as a supervisor.
Successful coaches often become as well or even better-known than the players they coach, and in recent years have come to command high salaries and have agents of their own to negotiate their contracts with the teams.
Coaching techniques and philosophies are often taught by prominent coaches to youth and high school coaches at events referred to as "coaching clinics" where literature supports the increase of specific, positive feed back in order to achieve optimal effects of coaching. The classic practice consists of the on-court demonstrations and walkthroughs to learn the plays and strategies. Other applications are used to create a more effective learning environment that will reach all the athletes. Coaching philosophies are passed along from one generation of coaches to another through these events, and of course the tendency of assistant coaches serving under a successful head coach being the most likely to be given an opportunity to become head coaches in their own right.
Many coaches are former players of the sport themselves, and coaches of professional sports teams are sometimes retired players.